Jerry Robinson, the legendary cartoonist credited with creating The Joker and co-creating both Robin and Alfred in the Batman comic book feature, passed today at the age of 89. In addition to working in comic books, newspaper strips, and political cartoons, Mr. Robinson was also a highly regarded comics historian and an early creators' rights advocate.
Jerry Robinson was born on 1 January 1922 in Trenton, New Jersey. At the age of 17 Mr. Robinson was selling ice cream at a resort in the Catskills when Batman co-creator Bob Kane noticed the white painter's jacket he was wearing, which was covered with his own illustrations. Mr. Kane offered Mr. Robinson a job working on the Batman feature as an inker and letterer. Robinson would soon become an important fixture on the Batman feature, to the point that he probably contributed more to the character's mythos than anyone except Bill Finger. He is credited with having co-created the character of Robin with Bill Finger, the character of Alfred with Bob Kane, the character of Two-Face with Bill Finger, and the villains Tweedledee and Tweedeledum with Don Cameron. While there has been some dispute over the creation of the character, most comic book historians credit Jerry Robinson with the creation of The Joker.
A year after Jerry Robinson had been hired by Bob Kane, he and Bill Finger were hired away by Detective Comics Inc. (one of the companies that would become DC Comics Inc.). While he would work on other features for the company, he continued to work on Batman until 1947. Mr. Robinson would also work for other comic book publishers, including work on London for Lev Gleason, and The Green Hornet for Harvey from 1942 to 1943. At National Periodical Publications (the company that would become DC Comics Inc.) he worked with friend Mort Meskin on The Vigilante and Johnny Quick from 1946 to 1949. From 1944 to 1946 Jerry Robinson and Mort Meskin ran their own studio that produced material for the short lived Spark Publications, including Atoman.
In the Fifties Jerry Robinson taught at the School of Visual Arts. He also worked at the company that would eventually become Marvel on everything from romance to war comic books. With writer Sheldon Stark he created the newspaper strip Jet Scott, which started in 1953. In 1963 Jerry Robinson created his long running political newspaper strip Still Life. A year later he created another newspaper strip, Flubs and Fluffs. He also created the political comic strip Life with Robinson. Between Still Life and Life with Robinson, Jerry Robinson was a political cartoonist for 32 years. In the Sixties he contributed to several Dell comic books, primarily such TV show adaptations as Rocky and Bullwinkle and Lassie.
In 1973 he published The Comics: An Illustrated History of Comic Strip Art, a history of newspaper comic strips.In 1978 he founded the Cartoonists and Writers Syndicate. In the Seventies Jerry Robinson would prove pivotal in the fight for Superman creators Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster to receive compensation from DC Comics Inc. for their creation. He would be an advocate for creators' rights ever since then. In 1999 Jerry Robinson co-created the manga series Astra with Shojin Tanaka and Ken-ichi Oishi.
Jerry Robinson would also create one of the most impressive collections of Golden Age comic book art ever to exist. As a young man working in the comic book industry he would retrieve the work of his peers from the trash and preserve them. In the end he kept pieces that would be displayed at museums and even sold at auction for very high prices.
As mentioned earlier, there was some dispute over whether Jerry Robinson created The Joker. Bob Kane, co-creator of Batman with Bob Finger, always maintained that Bill Finger brought him a photograph of Conrad Veidt from the movie The Man Who Laughs (1928) and that he created the character based on that. According to Jerry Robinson, he sketched a Joker playing card as a part of the concept of a new Batman villain. He showed the sketch to Bill Finger, who told him that it reminded him of Conrad Veidt from The Man Who Laughs. Mr. Finger then brought in photographs from the movie for Mr. Robinson. Mr. Robinson then created the visual look of The Joker based on those photos, while Mr. Finger fleshed out the character. Most comic book historians agree with Jerry Robinson's account of the creation of The Joker. Indeed, it must be pointed out that until the Sixties Bob Kane denied that Bill Finger even had a role in the creation of Batman, making his reliability somewhat questionable.
Even Bob Kane would not dispute that Bill Finger and Jerry Robinson created the character of Robin. Mr. Finger suggested to Jerry Robinson that they create a character with whom youngsters could identify. Jerry Robinson took inspiration from the movie The Adventures of Robin Hood and named the new character "Robin." The costume was based on N. C. Wyeth’s illustration “Robin Meets Maid Marian.” The character proved successful, to the point that he inspired a trend towards youthful sidekicks in the Golden Age of comic books.
Regardless, even if Jerry Robinson had not created The Joker, he would have a lasting impact on Batman, having a role in the creation of Robin, Alfred, and Two-Face. In fact, even though Bob Kane co-created Batman, it is arguable that Batman as we know him to day (indeed, as he was known by 1943), is largely the product of Bill Finger, Jerry Robinson, and Gardner Fox (the legendary writer who first introduced gadgets such as the Batarang into the feature). Beyond Jerry Robinson's contributions to Batman, it must be acknowledged that he was a great cartoonist. Still Life and Life with Robinson number among the best political comic strips of all time. He also contributed art to books and even to Playbill. He took photographs worldwide, many of which have been displayed for exhibition. As if that was not enough, he was a great comics historian. Beyond amassing an impressive collection of Golden Age art, he also wrote the book on the history of newspaper comic strips.
Going beyond Mr. Robinson's work as a cartoonist, he was also a pioneer in the field of creators' rights. It was largely due to Jerry Robinson that Superman creators Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster would receive from DC Comics Inc. a deal that gave them annual payments and even provided for their heirs. And it was after repeated calls from Jerry Robinson that DC Comics Inc. finally agreed to give Messrs. Siegel and Shuster credit on all works involving Superman. Jerry Robinson also worked on behalf of oppressed political cartoonists worldwide.
In fact, Jerry Robinson was something much rarer than an extremely talented and legendary cartoonist. He was by all accounts a true gentleman. Everyone I know who ever had the opportunity to meet or speak with him have spoken of his kindness and decency. Artist Neal Adams, who worked with Jerry Robinson in the legal battle to get compensation for Jerry Seigel and Joe Shuster for the creation of Superman, said in a statement to The Los Angeles Times, ”Jerry didn’t hesitate a moment, ever, if he had a chance to help someone.” Jerry Robinson was a man who genuinely cared for others, something which was shown in his fight for creators' rights and his work on behalf of oppressed political cartoonists.
As for myself, I owe Jerry Robinson more than I can ever know. It is not a simple case that Batman is my favourite comic book character of all time and Mr. Robinson made valuable contributions to Batman's mythos. The simple fact is that Batman got me into comic books, which led to me wanting to write comic books, which led to me simply wanting to be a writer. To a very large degree, then, I owe much of what I am to Bill Finger, Bob Kane, and Jerry Robinson. The simple fact is that without Jerry Robinson I might never have become a writer. Indeed, this blog would not even exist. I have no idea if Mr. Robinson can hear me, but on behalf of all of us whom he inspired, I would like to say, "Thank you."