Friday, 24 February 2017

Turner Classic Movies' Noir Alley

Yesterday Turner Classic Movies announced a new programming franchise called Noir Alley. It is going to be hosted by Eddie Muller, president and founder of the Film Noir Foundation.  Many classic film buffs are probably already familiar with Mr. Muller through his DVD commentaries for movies from Angel Face (1953) to They Live by Night (1948), as well as such books as Dark City: The Lost World of Film Noir and Dark City Dames: The Wicked Women of Film Noir.

Noir Alley will air each Sunday at 10:00 AM Eastern/9:00 AM Central, and each week will feature a different film noir. There is also a Noir Alley Facebook page and a Noir Alley Twitter account, both of which will feature exclusive content, including videos from Eddie Muller. There will be live tweeting on March 5 through the Noir Alley Twitter account. TCM fans are encouraged to participate using the hashtag #NoirAlley (of course, if you one of the TCM Partiers, you'll want to use the hashtag #TCMParty as well).

Noir Alley gets off to a flying start on March 5 with the proto-noir classic The Maltese Falcon (1941). It will be followed by the classics Act of Violence (1948) on March 19 and Tension (1949) on March 26. The cult film Detour (1945) airs March 12.

Fans of film noir will definitely want to tune into TCM Sunday mornings.

Thursday, 23 February 2017

Hulu Vs. Netflix

When it comes to streaming services, Amazon Prime, Hulu, and Netflix come to most Americans' minds. Netflix continues to be the biggest of the three, with Amazon Prime coming in second place and Hulu in third. While Netflix may be the top streaming service, that does not necessarily mean it is the best. I find I rarely use Amazon Prime myself, so for me, at least, the competition as to which is better comes down to Netflix and Hulu.

When it comes to classic television shows, I would say that Hulu definitely has an advantage over Netflix. A few weeks ago I tried finding classic sitcoms on Netflix. Ultimately, I only found four: The Andy Griffith Show, Cheers, and The Dick Van Dyke Show. While I love all three shows, I have to point out that I have seen each of their entire runs several times over and, like most Americans, I have no shortage of venues on which to watch them. This stands in stark contrast to Hulu, where there are many more classic sitcoms available. Many are shows that I have seen repeatedly and could watch on any number of TV channels: The Beverly Hillbillies; The Bob Newhart Show; Cheers; I Love Lucy; The Dick Van Dyke Show; The Golden Girls; and The Mary Tyler Moore Show. That having been said, Hulu has several classic sitcoms that one doesn't see very often on local TV stations or on the various cable channels these days: The Addams Family;Car 54, Where Are You?; The Donna Reed ShowThe Lucy ShowMcHale's Navy; Mister Ed; My Favourite Martian; The Odd Couple; Taxi; and WKRP in Cincinnati. Here I must point out that I am only listing the sitcoms on Hulu that I really like. There are many more to be seen there. Even once one goes beyond sitcoms, Hulu has more classic shows than Netflix. Netflix has Star Trek, The Twilight Zone, and Twin Peaks. Hulu has Adam-12; Alfred Hitchcock Presents; Ironside; The Rockford Files; The Saint; Star Trek; and yet others. 

Both Netflix and Hulu have good selections of British TV shows. In fact, the two even share some British shows in common, including Being Human, Doc Martin, and Foyle's War. As might be expected, it is Hulu that tends to have older British shows. Among the classic British series on Hulu are Black Adder, Father Ted, The Invisible Man, Space: 1999, The Saint, Thunderbirds, and UFO. In contrast, the oldest British show on Netflix is the classic cartoon Danger Mouse. Both Netflix and Hulu also have good selections of anime series, to the point that it is difficult to say which is better. That having been said, Netflix might just have the advantage over Hulu when it comes to international television in general. A quick glance at Hulu's International section under TV reveals mostly anime and British TV shows. In contrast, Netflix has entire sections dedicated to Korean TV and Spanish-Language TV.

Of course, the past few years much has been made of Netflix's original series, and I do think Netflix may be better than Hulu in that regard. Netflix has several original series I have either enjoyed or want to see, including the various Marvel shows (Daredevil, Jessica Jones, and Luke Cage), The Crown, Gilmore Girls: A Year in the Life; Longmire, A Series of Unfortunate Events, and Stranger Things. In contrast, so far the only Hulu original that interests me is 11.22.63.

With regards to movies, neither Hulu nor Netflix have the sort of selection one might find available on the various premium channels, although they are both comparable to other streaming services, if not better. Surprisingly, Netflix would seem to have the advantage when it comes to classic films. Among the classic movies on Netflix are The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951), The Graduate (1967), Gentleman Prefer Blondes (1953), How to Steal a Million (1966), Laura (1944), Metropolis (1927), The Third Man (1949), and To Kill a Mockingbird (1962), among others. On the other hand, Hulu has far fewer classics, and those they do have tend to be of a more recent vintage. Hulu does have all of the Indiana Jones movies, as well as an assortment of James Bond films. They also have such classic films as American Graffiti (1973), Annie Hall (1977), Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1982), The Long Riders (1980), Sabrina (1954), Stand by Me (1986), Theatre of Blood (1973), and This is Spinal Tap (1984), among others. Ultimately, I would say that if one wants to see movies from the Golden Age of Hollywood, he or she might be better off with Netflix. If he or she prefers films of a  more recent vintage, Hulu does have a good selection of films made since the Eighties.

With regards to foreign films, I would say both Netflix and Hulu are about even. Indeed, they do share a few foreign movies in common. That having been said, I think Hulu's menu makes it easier to find what one is looking for. Quite simply, Hulu lists many films by country of origin. This makes it easy for one to find Chinese movies, Japanese movies, Korean movies, Spanish language movies, or whatever else one may be looking for. In contrast, Netflix has all of its international movies mixed together, so that on the list one may see the Spanish film Los Últimos Días (2013) right beside the Dutch film Michiel de Ruyter (2014), which may be followed by the Brazilian film Mais Forte que o Mundo: A História de José Aldo (2016).

Ultimately, I really can't say which streaming service is better. It really depends upon what one is looking for in a streaming service. If I had to choose between Netflix and Hulu, I would go with Hulu myself. While Netflix has more classic films than Hulu, I already have an extensive collection of classics on DVD, as well as access to Turner Classic Movies. What I really want out of a streaming service is access to classic TV shows that are rarely seen elsewhere. Hulu is far superior to Netflix in that regard, to the point that I suspect most classic TV buffs would cancel their Netflix subscription before they would ever cancel their Hulu subscription. In the end, I would say that if one wants original series and movies, Netflix might be the way to go. If one wants classic TV shows and movies, Hulu would be the way to go.

Monday, 20 February 2017

Matt Baker: African American Comic Book Artist

Among the most famous comic book artists to emerge during the latter half of the Golden Age of Comic Books was Matt Baker. He is particularly well known for the "good girl" art of the early part of his career, although he would ultimately work in a variety of comic book genres. In his relatively short career, Matt Baker drew superhero comic books, crime comic books, romance comic books, and Western comic books. He even worked on what might be the first graphic novel, It Rhymes with Lust (1950). What set Matt Baker apart form many comic book artists of the era is that he also happened to be black.

Contrary to popular belief, Matt Baker was not the first African American comic book artist. Given the lack of credit given artists on many Golden Age comic books it is difficult to say with any certainty who the first black comic book artist was, but it seems likely it was E. C. Stoner. E. C. Stoner was a commercial artist widely credited for shaping the appearance of  Planters mascot, Mr. Peanut. He went on to work in comic books and even worked on the very first issue of Detective Comics (March 1937). Legendary artist Alvin C. Hollingsworth began working in comic books around 1940. His first work was as an art assistant on Holyoke's Cat-Man Comics. In the mid to late Forties Andre LeBlanc and Warren Broderick were two other black artists to emerge in the comic book industry. While Matt Baker may not have been the first black comic book artist, he was certainly among the most important black artists to emerge during the Golden Age. Some might argue that he was the most important.

Matt Baker was born on December 10 1927 in Forsyth County, North Carolina. He was very young when his family moved to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which is where he spent most of his childhood. Sadly, as a child Matt Baker contracted rheumatic fever, the end result of which was that it weakened his heart. It was in 1940, not long after he had graduated high school, that Mr. Baker moved to Washington D. C. There he apparently worked for a government agency. He later moved to New York City where he took art courses at Cooper Union.

Matt Baker began his career in comic books with the Jerry Iger Studio, a comic book packager that provided material for various comic book publishers. His earliest confirmed work was pencilling and inking a 12 page "Sheena, Queen of the Jungle" story in Jumbo Comics #69 (November 1944). In his early days with the Jerry Iger Studio Matt Baker spent most of his time pencilling backgrounds and female characters for other artists. He would not remain doing so for long. In Jumbo Comics #68 (October 1944) a new feature titled "Sky Girl" debuted. "Sky Girl" followed the adventures of a leggy redhead named Ginger Maguire who most often worked as a ferry pilot in the Pacific theatre of World War II. Matt Baker's gift for drawing beautiful women was already apparent early in his career, so it should come as no surprise that he was soon assigned to the feature. Mr. Baker continued to work on "Sky Girl" until Jumbo Comics #114 (August 1948).

While at the Jerry Iger Studio, Matt Baker would illustrate other female heroes for Fiction House beyond "Sky Girl".  He also worked on the feature "Tiger Girl" that appeared in Fight Comics. Tiger Girl owed a good deal to Sheena, Queen of the Jungle, the only significant difference being that Tiger Girl's adventures appeared to take place in some odd blend of India and Africa. He also drew another Sheena clone for Fiction House, "Camilla",  who appeared in Jungle Comics. Matt Baker's work for Fiction House was not exclusively female characters. He drew "The Skull Squad" for Wings Comics and "Kayo Kirby" for Fight Comics.

In the late Forties Fiction House was hardly the only comic book publisher for which Matt Baker provided material. He also worked on Classic Comics #32 (December 1946), which featured that title's adaptation of Lorna Doone. What may have been his most famous (or perhaps "notorious" would be a better word) work may have been for Fox Features Syndicate. Matt Baker worked on Fox's comic book Phantom Lady. The star of the feature, the superhero known as "Phantom Lady", did not originate with Fox. Instead she had been provided by the Jerry Iger Studio as a back up feature for Quality Comics' Police Comics and appeared in the first issue of that magazine (August 1941). At Quality Comics, Phantom Lady last appeared in Police Comics #23 (October 1943). The Jerry Iger Studio, assuming that they owned the rights to the character, later took Phantom Lady to Fox. Phantom Lady made her first appearance in a Fox comic book in Phantom Lady #13 (August 1947), taking over the numbering of the title Wotalife Comics. Given his gift for drawing women, it should come as no surprise that Matt Baker was assigned to the "Phantom Lady" feature. He even redesigned her costume. A rather modest, yellow affair when she was published by Quality Comics, at Fox Features Syndicate her costume became a blue outfit that revealed considerable cleavage and included a dangerously short skirt.

It was the cover of Phantom Lady vol. 1, #17 (April 1948) that would become perhaps the most famous Matt Baker art of all time. The cover featured the buxom Phantom Lady bound to a post. This particular cover was noticed by Dr. Fredric Wertham, the notorious crusader against comic books. He included the cover in his book Seduction of the Innocent with the caption, "Sexual stimulation by combining 'headlights' with the sadist's dream of tying up a woman. ("headlights" was early Fifties slang for "breasts")." Here it should be noted that by the time Seduction of the Innocent was published in 1954, Fox Features Syndicate has been out of business for four years. The company had filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1950.

Matt Baker worked for other titles beyond Phantom Lady at Fox. He also illustrated Fox's jungle heroine Rulah in such titles as Rulah, Jungle Goddess and Zoot Comics.

It is unclear when Matt Baker left the Jerry Iger Studio, but it appears to have been some time in 1948 or 1949. Regardless, he would go onto work for St. John Publications. While Mr. Baker's work on Fox Features Syndicate's Phantom Lady might be more famous, arguably his best work was done at St. John. Not only did Matt Baker come into his own as an artist at St. John, but he became the publisher's most important artist. There were very few titles published by St. John that did not feature the artwork of Matt Baker at one time or another.

Matt Baker's first work at St. John Publications appears to have in titles cover dated "October 1948": Crime Reporter #2 and Northwest Mounties #1. He would go onto work on a wide variety of titles published by St. John, including Authentic Police Cases, Fightin' Marines, Flying Cadet, and The Texan. While he worked in a number of genres while at St. John, most of his work would be done on the publisher's romance titles, including Cinderella Love, Diary Stories, Pictorial Romances, Teenage Romances, True Love Pictorial, and yet others. Among his best work at St. John was on Canteen Kate, which had debuted as a feature in Fightin' Marines. Canteen Kate was a service comedy centred around the title character who ran a canteen in Korea during the Korean War. It was while at St. John that Matt Baker moved away from the "good girl" art of his early career towards a more naturalistic style. While the women he drew were still beautiful, they also looked more realistic.

What may have been Matt Baker's most important work at St. John is also what is widely regarded as the first graphic novel. Writers Arnold Drake and Leslie Waller conceived what they called "picture novels", essentially a longer, more adult format that would tell a single story. The two were able to convince publisher Archer St. John of the viability of the format, which would be published as mass market paperbacks. The very first "picture novel" was It Rhymes with Lust, which was written by Messrs. Drake and Waller.  It featured art pencilled by Matt Baker and inked by Ray Osrin. It Rhymes with Lust was definitely an adult tale that borrowed from both film noir and the pulp fiction of the day. It was followed by another "picture novel", The Case of the Winking Buddha, by writer Manning Lee Stokes and artist Charles Raab. Unfortunately neither sold well and Archer St. John cancelled plans for an entire line of picture novels.

Matt Baker not only worked in St. John Publications' line of comic books, but in its line of magazines as well. He provided all of the illustrations for the first issue of St. John's crime magazine Manhunt (January 1953). He also provided the illustrations for the first issue of St. John's men's magazine Nugget (November 1955). Unfortunately on August 13 1955 Archer St. John was found dead in a female friend's apartment. The cause seemed to be from an overdose of sleeping pills. St. John Publications stopped publishing comic books in 1957, although they continued to publish magazines well into the Sixties.

Following his years with St. John, Matt Baker became a freelancer. He worked on Dell Comics' Lassie comic books featuring the famous Collie. For Dell he also worked on Four Color #58 (October 1954), their adaptation of the movie King Richard and the Crusaders. He also did a good deal of work for Atlas Comics, the company that would evolve into the modern day Marvel Comics. Not surprisingly given his career at St. John, he provided a good deal of art for their various romance titles, including Love Romances, My Own Romance, and Teen-Age Romance. He also worked on the company's many Western titles, including Frontier Western, Quick Trigger Action, Western Outlaws, and Wild Western. While today Atlas may be best known for their various "monster" comic books, Matt Baker did very little work on those titles. He only contributed one story each to the monster titles Strange Tales, Tales to Astonish, and World of Fantasy.

Sadly, Matt Baker's weak heart would catch up with him in the end. On August 11 1959 he died of a heart attack at age 37. His last confirmed work was "I Gave Up the Man I Love!" in Atlas Comics' My Own Romance #73 (Jan. 1960).

Despite Matt Baker's importance in comic book history, very little is known about his personal life. Perhaps because he was one of the very few African Americans working in the comic book industry at the time, he did not associate with a lot of his fellow comic book artists and comic book writers. He did develop a few friendships within the industry. He was a close friend of inker Frank Giusto, who even asked him to be the best man at his wedding. While Matt Baker declined the honour, he did attend Mr. Giusto's wedding. Another close friend was fellow artist Ray Osrin. Matt Baker would take Mr. Osrin and his family for drives in his convertible. He also appears to have been close to publisher Archer St. John. They went to California together once, where they were photographed outside Grauman's Chinese Theatre.

Matt Baker had a reputation for his fashion sense. Writer Arnold Drake described him as "the hippest dresser I had ever seen." Ray Osrin said of Mr. Baker, " I envied the way he wore clothes." According to more than one source Matt Baker was a fan of jazz. Frank Giusto said that they would listen to jazz while they were working.

While we know little of Matt Baker's personal life, we do know his impact on the art of comic books. During the Golden Age of Comic Books, much of the art was either cartoony or, at least, highly stylised. Matt Baker was among the first comic book artists to use a more realistic, more naturalistic style. Matt Baker's influence would be seen most immediately on EC Comics' titles in the early Fifties. Al Feldstein, who was an artist, editor, and writer at EC, had worked with Matt Baker. By the Sixties there would emerge several artists who used more realistic styles, including Neal Adams and John Romita. In the Seventies, Eighties, and Nineties, realism would become the dominant style in superhero comic books.

Of course, beyond pioneering realism in comic book art, Matt Baker was also a pioneer in the comic book industry simply because he was one of the earliest black artists to work in the industry. We no very little about how Matt Baker was treated as one of the few African Americans in the industry at the time. That having been said, race would seem to have been the elephant in the room. Al Feldstein thought much of the reason that Matt Baker did not associate with a lot of his colleagues in the comic book industry was due to the fact that he was black. Mr. Feldstein said, "Part of Matt’s problem, I feel in retrospect, was due to a basic and despicable problem prevalent in America during the early post-war period, racial bias and racial inequality. Matt was a black man. He was a rare phenomenon in an industry almost totally dominated by white males."

While one has to suspect Matt Baker experienced racism in the comic book industry of the post-war era, his sheer talent overcame many of the obstacles being an African American presented in the industry. Matt Baker's half-brother Fred Robinson noted that Mr. Baker got considerable work in the comic book industry because of his sheer talent. Mr. Robinson said of Matt Baker, "He got it because he was good. It’s as simple as that. If you’re good, and you have what people want, they’re going to use you. You get hired. Jackie Robinson broke the colour barrier mainly because he was good—he could play ball better than anyone else. He just happened to be black, and was given a hard time because of that, but the fact remains that he was still good and rose above all that." Matt Baker broke colour barriers in the comic book industry because he was an extremely talented artist. While he was not the first African American artist in the comic book industry, he was arguably the most important of the early African American artists to emerge in the Golden Age. In many respects, he was the Jackie Robinson of comic books.

(Much of the information for this article was drawn from the book Matt Baker: The Art of Glamour by Jim Amash and Eric Nolen-Weathington)

Thursday, 16 February 2017

Bruce Lansbury Passes On

Bruce Lansbury, who produced such popular shows as The Wild Wild West; Wonder Woman; and Murder, She Wrote died February 13 2017 at the age of 87. He had suffered from Alzheimer’s disease.

Bruce Lansbury was born in London on January 12 1930. His twin was Edgar Lansbury, whose career was primarily in the theatre. His parents were actress Moyna Macgill and socialist politician Edgar Lansbury. His older sister was renowned actress Dame Angela Lansbury. At the beginning of World War II, Bruce Lansbury's mother migrated to New York City along with his sister, his brother, and himself. The family settled in Los Angeles in the mid-Forties. Bruce Lansbury served in the United States Army and later graduated from UCLA with a bachelor's degree.

Mr. Lansbury began his television career at WABC in Los Angeles. He later went to work for CBS in programme development. It was shortly before the show's second season that he joined The Wild Wild West. When the show's creator and executive producer, Michael Garrison died from a fall down the stairs, Bruce Lansbury took over as the show's producer. In all he produced 69 episodes of The Wild Wild West. Afterwards he served as a producer on Mission: Impossible from 1969-1972.

In the late Sixties Bruce Lansbury joined Paramount Television as vice president: creative affairs. He oversaw such shows as The Odd Couple; The Brady Bunch; Love, American Style; Happy Days; and Petrocelli. While at Paramount he created the short-lived mystery series The Magician, starring Bill Bixby. Following his stint at Paramount, Mr. Lansbury served as executive producer on the short-lived fantasy series The Fantastic Journey. He then served as supervising producer on Wonder Woman and later Buck Rogers in the 25th Century.

In the Eighties Bruce Lansbury was an executive producer on The Powers of Matthew Star and a supervising producer on Street Hawk (which he also created) and Knight Rider. He wrote episodes of the 1990-1991 series Zorro. From 1992 to 1996 Bruce Lansbury served as a supervising producer on Murder, She Wrote, which starred his sister Dame Angela Lansbury. He also wrote several episodes of the show.

Bruce Lansbury was responsible for producing several hours of memorable television. While his episodes of The Wild Wild West may not be quite as good as those produced under Michael Garrison's watch, the show remained an entertaining series and, unlike many genre shows of the Sixties, never jumped the shark. Wonder Woman remains an enjoyable bit of Seventies, superhero camp. Arguably Mr. Lansbury not only produced but wrote some of the best episodes of Murder, She Wrote. While it did not run very long, I must say that I have very fond memories of The Magician myself.  While the shows Bruce Lansbury produced may not have been Playhouse 90, they were entertaining and generally well done. Indeed, not many producers can boast having produced several shows (The Wild Wild West; Mission: Impossible; Wonder Woman; and Murder, She Wrote) that are still watched years after they first aired.

Tuesday, 14 February 2017

Happy Valentine's Day 2017

Here at A Shroud of Thoughts it is customary to post classic, Hollywood pinups on holidays. Valentine's Day is no different, so, without further ado, here are this year's pinups.

Dorothy Hart is posing with a heart.

Toby Wing has turned herself into a Valentine card!

Joan Leslie is the Queen of Hearts!

 Lynn Merrick has her calendar marked!

Leslie Caron is eagerly awaiting her Valentine!

And, of course, it wouldn't be Valentine's Day without Ann Miller!

Happy Valentine's Day!

Monday, 13 February 2017

The Beatles' "Penny Lane"/"Strawberry Fields Forever"

It was fifty years ago today that The Beatles' single "Penny Lane"/"Strawberry Fields Forever" was released in the United States. Like many of The Beatles' later singles it was a double A-side. "Penny Lane" would go to no. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100, while "Strawberry Fields Forever" peaked at no. 8. In the United Kingdom both songs only peaked at no. 2, breaking a four year streak of every Beatle single going to no. 1. Regardless, both "Penny Lane" and "Strawberry Fields Forever" remain two of The Beatles' best remembered songs, more so than some of their songs that did reach no. 1 on the British single chart.

Both songs were originally recorded for the album that would become known as Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. In fact, "Strawberry Fields Forever" was the first song recorded during the Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band sessions. The two songs were released as a single under pressure from EMI, who thought it had been too long since The Beatles had released a single.

Both songs dealt with actual places in Liverpool. The name "Penny Lane" not only refers to an actual street in Liverpool, but the entire area surrounding Smithdown Place. This includes Newcastle Road (where John Lennon lived for the first five years of his life), Church Road, Allerton Road, and Smithdown Road. In the Sixties Penny Lane was a bus roundabout. John Lennon and Paul McCartney would meet at the junction of Penny Lane to catch the bus to the centre of Liverpool.

"Strawberry Fields Forever" was inspired by Strawberry Field, a Salvation Army children's home in Woolton, Liverpool. It was not far from where John Lennon grew up, and he attended the annual garden parties they held each summer. Strawberry Field was originally a private estate. In 1936 it was sold to the Salvation Army. The Salvation Army opened it as a children's home on July 7 1936. While the original house would eventually be demolished, a smaller building would be built to take its place. It remained open until 2005, at which point it became a Salvation Army church and prayer centre.

Promotional films would be shot for both "Penny Lane" and "Strawberry Fields Forever". Curiously, the promo film for "Penny Lane" was not shot on Penny Lane, as The Beatles did not want to travel all the way to Liverpool. Instead it was shot on and around Angel Road in the East End of London, with some scenes shot on the King's Road in Chelsea. The rather surreal film for "Strawberry Fields Forever" was shot at Knole Park in Sevenoaks, Kent. The promotional films for "Penny Lane" and "Strawberry Fields Forever" made their debut on the BBC's music programme Top of the Pops on February 7 1967. They were later shown in the United States on the ABC variety show The Hollywood Palace on February 25 1967.

Sadly, the complete promotional films for "Penny Lane" and "Strawberry Fields Forever" are not available online. That being the case, here are the songs courtesy of Spotify.

Saturday, 11 February 2017

Before Rock 'n' Roll There Was Cab Calloway

Lamont: "What are you bringing all of this up for now? Here we all are into a discovery about Africa and you're talking about slicking down your hair to look like white people."
Fred: "I ain't sayin' nothin' about no white people. I said Cab Calloway!"
(Sanford and Son, "Lamont Goes African", season 2 episode 17)

Rock 'n' roll grew out of a number of different music genres. Both blue and rhythm and blues have often been acknowledged as progenitors of rock music. Less often acknowledged is the debt that rock 'n' roll owes to jazz, more specifically Swing. Swing music is essentially jazz written specifically for dancing. Swing bands are noted for their strong rhythm sections, accompanied by a lead section of brass, woodwinds, and sometimes even stringed instruments such as guitar or violin. Swing proved phenomenally popular from 1935 to 1946. In fact, this time period is often called "the Swing Era". Swing would have an impact on the development of rock music, from African American musicians such as Count Basie, Duke Ellington, and Fletcher Henderson to Western Swing musicians such as Bob Willis and Hank Thompson. Among the Swing artists to have the most impact on rock 'n' roll was Cab Calloway.

Cab Calloway was born to an upper middle class family in Rochester, New York on December 25 1907. His mother was a teacher, while his father was a lawyer who also worked in real estate. He had formal training from a young age. Cab Calloway's parents, realising their son had musical talent, enrolled him in private voice lessons. Throughout his childhood young Cab Calloway continued to study music in school. He also learned music from another source. While still a teenager he began going to the various jazz clubs in Baltimore, and even performing at them. Among his mentors was legendary drummer Chick Webb.

Despite his talent in music, Cab Calloway's parents hoped that he would follow his father into a legal career. He even enrolled at Crane College in Chicago. Despite this his love of jazz proved too strong, and Cab Calloway soon found himself performing at the Dreamland Ballroom, the Sunset Cafe, and the Club Berlin in Chicago as both a drummer and a singer. It was not long before he left school to devote himself to music full time.

Cab Calloway eventually joined a group called The Missourians. It was not long before he became the band's leader and it was renamed "Cab Calloway and His Orchestra". Their big break came when they were hired to substitute for the Cotton Clubs house band,  Duke Ellington Orchestra, while they were touring. Cab Calloway and His Orchestra proved so popular that the Cotton Club hired them as a house band alongside Duke Ellington's group. Radio broadcasts were regularly made from The Cotton Club through NBC's Red Network, giving both Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway national exposure.

With nationwide exposure on the radio, it would not be long before Cab Calloway began having hit records. His single "Saint Louis Blues" went to no. 16 on the Billboard singles chart. It was "Minnie the Moocher" that would prove to be Mr. Calloway's biggest hit. The song proved to be phenomenally popular and reached no. 1 on the Billboard singles chart. From the Thirties into the Forties Cab Calloway would have a whole string of hits, including "Saint James Infirmary", "Kicking the Gong Around", "Tickeration", "Minnie the Moocher's Wedding Day", "Reefer Man", "Moon Glow", "Angels With Dirty Faces", "(Hep Hep!) The Jumping Jive", and "Blues in the Night". His popularity led to several appearances in movies, including The Big Broadcast (1932), The Singing Kid (1936), and Stormy Weather (1943).

Unfortunately by the late Forties Cab Calloway's career would be in decline. A number of bad financial decisions, as well as gambling debts, led to the break up of Cab Calloway and His Orchestra. Following the end of World War II the popularity of Swing music had also gone into decline. Cab Calloway continued to appear in films (such as Rhythm and Blues Revue in 1955 and St. Louis Blues in 1958) and even in such stage productions as Porgy and Bess. In 1980 he appeared in the movie The Blues Brothers.

Cab Calloway's appearance in The Blues Brothers resulted in renewed interest in his career. He played at The Ritz London in 1985. Along with other performers he was filmed for a BBC television special entitled The Cotton Club Comes to the Ritz. In 1986 he appeared on Broadway in Uptown... It's Hot!. In 1988 he performed with the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra. He later appeared at the Apollo Theatre. Cab Calloway died on November 18 1994 at age 86.

As pointed out above, many Swing musicians had an impact on rock music. Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson, and yet other would influence the development of rock 'n' roll. That having been said, the influence of Cab Calloway on rock 'n' roll would go well beyond his music. Quite simply, Cab Calloway was the consummate showman. His clothing on stage was outrageous by the standards of the time. In fact, it was Cab Calloway who popularised the zoot suit. On stage Mr. Calloway almost never stood still. He would dance around the stage, often with a conductor's baton that he would thrust and even twirl. Even his singing differed a bit from that typical in jazz of the time. It was a combination of traditional vaudeville singing, scat singing, and, quite often, improvisation.

Indeed, it must be noted that in many ways Cab Calloway and His Orchestra was quite different from other swing bands of the time. Most swing bands were led by an instrumentalist. Glenn Miller played trombone. Duke Ellington was a pianist. Tommy Dorsey played trombone, while his brother Jimmy played clarinet and saxophone. Nearly all of these bands had vocalists and many of these vocalists would become quite popular (Frank Sinatra, Kay Starr, Billie Holiday, and many others got their start with the Big Bands). That having been said, Cab Calloway and His Orchestra was actually led by vocalist, much in the same way many modern day rock bands are.  Cab Calloway not only performed much as modern day rock stars would, but he even recorded the song "I Want to Rock" many years before the word "rock" was ever applied to a genre of music.

Cab Calloway would have an immediate influence on a number of artists who followed him. Jazz singer Louis Prima, jazz trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie (who played with Cab Calloway for a time), and pop singer Frankie Laine all drew upon Cab Calloway for inspiration. Many of the early rock 'n' roll acts also looked to Cab Calloway for their stage performances. Mr. Calloway's influence upon Little Richard is obvious, but such diverse rock acts as Jerry Lee Lewis and even Elvis himself drew upon his showmanship in some way. Artists from James Brown to Prince owe something to Cab Calloway. In fact, it seems possible that the many tropes of rock music performances (jumping around the stage, et. al.) can be traced back to Cab Calloway.

Cab Calloway was a flamboyant, expressive vocalist who headed his own band at a time when Big Bands were generally led by instrumentalists. He was not simply a talented songwriter and singer, but one who put on incredible shows for which he is still well known. That he had lasting impact on rock 'n' roll, as well as other genres of music, should perhaps not be surprising.