Saturday, 9 January 2010

Gumby Creator Art Clokey R.I.P.

Art Clokey, the creator of popular clay animation character Gumby, passed on January 8 at the age of 88. Recently he had fought off a number of bladder infections.

Art Clokey was born Arthur Farrington on October 12, 1921 in Michigan. As a young child on his grandparents farm he would make figures out of mud. Not long after his parents divorced, when he was 8 years old, his father was killed in the car wreck. His mother moved with him to California and abandoned him soon afterwards. He lived in a halfway house until he was adopted by famous educator and composer Joseph W. Clokey. It was Joseph W. Clokey who taught Art Clokey how to shoot film, draw, and paint.

Art Clokey attended the Webb School of California in Claremont. Clokey served in the military during World War II, and conducted photo reconnaissance over North Africa and France. After World War II Clokey studied to be an Episcopalian minister in Hartford, Connecticut. It was there that he met Ruth Parkander. The two eventually married. They also moved to California with the goal of entering the film industry. To make a living Clokey taught at the Harvard School for Boys in Studio Studio by day. At night he attended the University of Southern California. It was there that he studied under Slavko Vorkapich, the filmmaker best know for his work with montages.

It was while he was at the University of Southern California that Art Clokey made the experimental film Gumbasia in 1955. He also made another short film, The Clay Peacock, which featured a clay rendition of the NBC Peacock. Gumbasia would lead directly to the creation of Gumby. Sam Engel, then president of 20th Century Fox, saw the short film and asked Clokey to create a children's show based on the short. Clokey made the first pilot for The Adventures of Gumby on his own. He took this pilot to NBC, who signed Clokey to produce the new series. It was decided to give the new series a test tun on the popular Howdy Doody Show. The Adventures of Gumby episode "Robot Ruckus (actually the third one made) debuted on The Howdy Doody Show in August 1956. On March 19, 1957, The Adventures of Gumby debuted as its own show on NBC.

The Adventures of Gumby, also known as The Gumby Show, centred on the clay figure called Gumby and his sidekick, the talking pony Pokey. Together they would journey to the moon, competed in rodeos, and hunted lions. Gumby's shape was largely dictated by practicality. The figure had to be able to stand up during the stop motion process. The shape of his head may have been based on pictures of Art Clokey's biological father, Art Farmington, whose hair style featured  a prominent bump at the top. Gumby was made green simply because it was Art Clokey's favourite colour.

The Gumby Show would prove to be an incredible success. The original series would run until the end of the 1967-1968 season. The Gumby shorts would continue to be popular in reruns and were revitalised by the advent of the VCR. The character made an appearance in The Puppetoon Movie in 1987 and a new Gumby series was produced in 1988. In 1995 the movie Gumby I was made. Since then the character has been the subject of a video game and a comic book. Starting with YouTube in 2007, The Gumby Show is now available on many video sites.

Art Clokey was also responsible for the creation of Davey and Goliath, which followed the adventures of a boy named Davey and his dog Goliath. The show's genesis went back to 1958 when Franklin Clark Fry, president of the United Lutheran Church in America, allocated $1 million for the production of a children's show which would promote the church's values. In 1959 the Lutheran Church contacted Art Clokey about the producing a stop motion programme for children. Produced by Art Clokey and written by children's author Nancy Moore, Davey and Goliath ran from 1961 to 1975.

Art Clokey was also responsible for the clay animation titles for the movies Dr. Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine (1965) and How to Stuff a Wild Bikini (1965).

There can be no doubt that Art Clokey was one of the most talented stop motion animators of all time. Working with a limited budget on television, he created some of the most inspired animated shorts of all time. The quality of Clokey's work was incredible. What is more, The Gumby Show may well have been one of the best written children's shows of all time. The show was so imaginative and intelligent that it could easily be enjoyed by adults. As the creator of one of television's most memorable characters and a great stop motion animator, Art Clokey will be remembered for years to come.

Friday, 8 January 2010

The Young Women Who Would Be "Lolita"

Most movie buffs know that Sue Lyon was an unknown when she was cast as Dolores "Lolita" Haze in Stanley Kubrick's adaptation of Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita. Many might also know that nearly 800 girls auditioned for the part. What they might not know is that Kubrick had also considered some young actresses who were actually somewhat famous at the time.

Of course, casting Lolita presented Kubrick with some significant problems, as did the entire production of the movie. The novel Lolita had been a source of controversy from the beginning. Nabokov finished the novel in 1953, but due to its subject matter was unable to find a publisher until resorting to Olympia Press in Paris, who published the book in 1955. Even after Graham Greene gave the novel high marks in an interview with The Times, the novel proved scandalous in the United Kingdom. The editor of the Sunday Express referred to it as sheer "unrestrained pornography." The Home Office ordered British Customs officers to confiscate all copies of the novel. This would be followed by a ban in France that would last for two years. Amazingly enough, in the traditionally more puritanical United States the novel was published with little ado. In fact, it became the first novel in the United States since Gone with the Wind to sell 100,000 copies in its first three weeks.

Even today it is easy to understand the controversy over the novel and why it presented Stanley Kubrick with problems in its motion picture adaptation. After all, the novel centres upon the middle aged Humbert Humbert who becomes obsessed with Lolita, who at the start of the novel is only twelve years old. The portrayal of an obviously disturbed, middle aged man in a relationship with an adolescent would obviously have difficulties meeting with approval from the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA). Indeed, it is because MPAA would permit no suggestion of paedophilia that at the start of the film Lolita is fourteen years old. Beyond making Lolita older, the MPAA also required that Stanley Kubrick cast someone who looked more mature. He had been warned strongly against using a less mature looking actress in the role. Beyond having to find a young woman who looked mature and could be convincing as a fourteen year old, Kubrick also had to find someone who could be convincing as the sexually precocious Lolita. Casting the part would not prove to be easy.

Stanley Kubrick's first suggestion as to who should play Lolita must have seemed obvious at the time and still seems obvious today. Tuesday Weld was already an experienced actress, having appeared in several movies and the first season of The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. Although still a teenager, her image was already somewhat sexualised. Indeed, it has been reported she was dropped from the cast of The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis because she was too sexy for a family sitcom. While Tuesday Weld seemed perfect for the role of Lolita, she turned it down. Years later in an interview, when asked why she turned down Lolita, she simply said, "I didn't have to play Lolita. I was Lolita."

Another young actress considered for the role of Lolita was the still relatively unknown Joey Heatherton. Although today Heatherton is remembered as a sex symbol of the late Sixties and early Seventies, at the time she was just beginning her acting and singing career. Joey Heatherton was the daughter of vaudevillian and Broadway veteran Ray Heatherton, who had appeared on Broadway in Babes in Arms and as host of the children's television show The Merry Mailman. In 1960 Joey Heatherton appeared on Broadway in There was a Little Girl and had appeared on The Perry Como Show and Route 66. Heatherton was among Kubrick's top choices as to who should play Lolita, but her father Ray Heatherton turned the part down for her. Ray Heatherton worried that his daughter might be typecast as a sexually precocious sex kitten. Ironically, this would be the sort of image that Joey Heatherton would cultivate as she grew older. In 1963 she made her film debut in Twilight of Honour, playing the rather untamed young wife of Nick Adams. The following year Heatherton played a role that was quite similar to Lolita Haze in Where Love Has Gone, in which she played a teenage girl who competed with her own mother (Susan Hayward) for the same man. By the late Sixties she would be one of the sex symbols of the era.

At the time the choice of Tuesday Weld to play Lolita must not have seemed very surprising. In retrospect the choice of Joey Heatherton to play the role does not seem very surprising either, although it must have at the time. That having been said, Stanley Kubrick had in mind another actress for the role whose choice would have seemed shocking then and still seems shocking now. Hayley Mills was the daughter of legendary British actor Sir John Mills (who had appeared in such films as Great Expectations and Goodbye Mister Chips). Her sister Juliet Mills had also gone into acting and already had a healthy career by 1960. Hayley Mills had made her film career while still a baby, alongside her father in the film So Well Remembered. It was in 1959 that Hayley Mills appeared in the film Tiger Bay, also alongside her father. The film attracted the attention of Disney, who cast her as Pollyanna in the 1960 film of the same name. She would then begin a long association with Disney, making six films for the studio. One film she would not make would be Lolita.

It is unclear today why Hayley Mills turned down the role of Lolita. In 1960 it was reported that it was Sir John Mills himself who made the decision. It would hardly be surprising if this was the case, as it is would be reasonable for any father to have concerns over his daughter playing such a role. Indeed, Ray Heatherton had exactly those same concerns. Later it was reported that it was Walt Disney who made the decision. This would not be surprising either. Historically Disney was very protective of the images of actors under contract to his studio. When Annette Funicello appeared in the "Beach Party" films for American International Pictures, Disney even placed restrictions on the sort of bathing suits she was allowed to wear. Both Sir John Mills and Walt Disney would have had very good reasons for not letting Hayley Mills play Lolita, and it even seems possible that both men made the decision. In fact, it even seems possible that Hayley Mills made the decision herself. As of 1960 Hayley Mills was only fourteen years old and her career was just beginning. It seems quite possible that Hayley Mills may not have felt ready for such a role or that she realised he possible repercussions it could have on her career.

Regardless, in retrospect it would seem that Hayley Mills was right in turning down Lolita. She had already appeared in Tiger Bay and Pollyanna. By the time Lolita was released, she would have appeared in The Parent Trap as well. With an image as a wholesome, if sometimes flippant teenager already in place, it seems doubtful that audiences would accept her as Lolita. Indeed, audiences would have trouble accepting her as a young newlywed in The Family Way (directed by her father) and as the object of Oliver Reed's affections in Take a Girl Like You. It seems possible that audiences would have rejected the idea of the girl who played Pollyanna playing Lolita outright.

As surprising as the choice of Hayley Mills to play Lolita might seem today, another choice at the time might seem even more surprising. James Mason, who would play Humbbert Humbert in the film, initially turned the role down to for a part in a Broadway play. Mason did recommend his daughter Portland Mason for the role Lolita. Portland Mason had already appeared in a film short directed by her father (The Child in 1954), the film The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit, and several television shows. Eventually the part in the Broadway play fell through and Mason accepted the role of Humbert Humbert in the film. While it is unclear whether Portland Mason was ever in serious contention for the role, it seems likely that the casting of her father would have prevented her from being cast in the part. As the tale of a rather sick professor (Humbert Humbert) obsessed with a teenager, Lolita was already disturbing enough. It would have been much more disturbing had the man who played the professor also been the real life father of the teenager. Not only would the relationship between Humbert and Lolita have smacked of ephebophilia, but for many it might have smacked of incest as well. Of course, even if James Mason had not been cast in the role, it seems likely that Portland Mason would have never played the part. She would have turned twelve years old as of November, 1960. That would have made her far too young to play Lolita, who in the film starts out as a fourteen year old. Portland Mason's acting career would not last long. By 1968 she was no longer acting. Her most famous role may have been that of Georgina in The Great St. Trinian's Train Robbery.

Not having found an already established actress to play the role of Lolita, Stanley Kubrick was forced to conduct a talent search in which nearly 800 young women auditioned for the part. In the end it would be fourteen year old Sue Lyon who would be cast in the role. Lyon had been born in Davenport, Iowa, and had little acting experience. As of 1960 her only roles had been guest appearances on The Loretta Young Show and Dennis the Menace. Regardless, she was precisely what Stanley Kubrick was looking for. Although only fourteen, Lyon looked mature for her age, which would assuage the concerns of the MPAA. She also proved to be a capable actress, holding her own with such experienced actors as James Mason, Peter Sellers, and Shelley Winters. She even won the Golden Globe for Most Promising Newcomer – Female.

Although Lolita proved very controversial when it was released in 1962 (by which time Sue Lyon was sixteen years old), it also performed quite well at the box office. Unfortunately, while Lolita made her a star, her stardom would not last. In 1964 she played a role quite similar to Lolita, that of Charlotte in Night of the Iguana. This film also proved controversial. Unlike Tuesday Weld, Lyon would not be stuck in sex kitten roles. She played a missionary worker in 7 Women and the wealthy love interest in The Flim-Flam Man. Unfortunately, her star tbegan to decline in the late Sixties. By 1971 she was appearing in such roles as Evel Knieval's wife in Evel Knieval and making guest appearances on television shows. After 1980 she retired from acting.

Because of its very nature, Lolita  proved to be a very difficult film to cast. The MPAA made it clear that it would allow no suggestion of paedophilia, so that Stanley Kubrick needed an actress who was young enough to be convincing as a teen, but looked mature enough that she would not be seen as a total child. At the same time the film's subject matter would prove to be a stumbling block in casting the role. Both Joey Heatherton and Hayley Mills turned down the role because of the subject matter itself. It is not surprising that in the end Kubrick had to conduct a talent search in which nearly 800 young women auditioned for the role.

Even today, when so much more is permitted on the screen, Lolita is a very disturbing film. After all, it is the story of a obviously troubled middle aged man who becomes obsessed with a girl who is only fourteen at the start of the movie. The movie made for uncomfortable viewing in 1962 and it continues to do so today. It is little wonder that Stanley Kubrick had some difficulty making the film.

Wednesday, 6 January 2010

Godspeed Guitarist Rowland S. Howard

Australian guitarist Rowland S. Howard passed on December 30, 2009 at the age of 50. The cause was liver cancer.

Rowland S. Howard was born on October 24, 1959 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It was in 1978 that he joined Nick Cave's band The Boys Next Door (later to be renamed The Birthday Party). Howard's addition to the band would be one of the factors which would change its sound. Among other things, he made extensive use of audio feedback. It was in 1980 that The Boys Next Door moved to London and changed their name to The Birthday Party. In the early Eighties The Birthday Party began to disintegrate. By 1985 Rowland S. Howard had left the band to join Crime and the City Solution. It was in 1987 that he formed These Immortal Souls with Genevieve McGuckin.  The band would release four albums.

Rowland S. Howard released a solo album, Teenage Snuff Film, in 2000. He followed it up with a second solo album, Pop Crimes, in 2009. In 2007 he toured with Magic Dirt and Beasts of Bourbon. He also appeared on the Magic Dirt EP "White Boy."

Roland S. Howard was an extremely versatile guitarist. He was a master of audio feedback. And he could play anything from jazz riffs to guitar that could have belonged in a song by The Stooges. He was also a talented songwriter, contributing songs to The Birthday Party and These Immortal Souls. He will be missed.

Sunday, 3 January 2010

It's "Twenty Ten"

It has been nine years since the turn of the Millennium. The years that have followed have generally been termed "two thousand ____." Of course, this was a shift from the way years were called at the beginning of the 20th Century. Even today, we say "nineteen oh one," or even "nineteen aught one," not "one thousand, nine hundred one." While part of the change in the way we refer to years may well have been because of the new millennium, it seems most of the reason may well rest with a decision regarding the title of a movie made over forty years ago.

It was over forty years ago that Stanley Kubrick made the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. Among the many details Kubrick worried over with regards to a very complex film was the pronunciation of its name. He considered whether it should be pronounced "two thousand and one" or "twenty oh one," much as people referred to 1901 as "nineteen oh one." He discussed the pronunciation of the title with technical advisor Frederick Ordway. Together they decided it should be "two thousand and one," on the basis that it sounded better. Both men pondered whether it would have an impact on the language in the 21st Century.

It seems likely that it did have an impact on the English language in the 21st century. Indeed, it would seem that the fact that the "2001" in 2001: A Space Odyssey was pronounced "two thousand and one" did have an impact on the language. After all, there is no other explanation why 2001 should be pronounced "two thousand and one" instead of "twenty oh one," as years  have been in the past.

Of course, now we have reached the year 2010. And while some have insisted on pronouncing the last year in the first decade of the 21st century as "two thousand and ten," it seems to me that it is time we dispense with such and start referring to the year as "twenty ten." My reasoning is simple. First, "twenty ten" is easier to say than "two thousand ten," having one less syllable. Second, at least to my ear, it sounds better. Third, it would provide a link to earlier years. After all, for the whole of the Twentieth Century, years were pronounced "nineteen ____," not "one thousand, nine hundred, and ____." For the sake of continuity, it would simply seem better to say "twenty ten," than "two thousand and ten."

Regardless, it would seem that one very successful film from forty years ago did indeed have an impact on the English language. If the title of 2001: A Space Odyssey had been pronounced differently or had a different title, we might well have pronounced 2001 "twenty oh one."