Friday, 6 April 2012

Character Actor Warren Stevens R.I.P.

Character actor Warren Stevens, who appeared in movie roles including Doc Ostrow in Forbidden Planet and Kirk Edwards in The Barefoot Contessa as well as numerous television roles, passed on 27 March 2012 at the age of 92.  The cause was chronic lung disease.

Warren Stevens was born on 2 November 1919 in Clarks Summit Pennsylvania. During World War II he served as a pilot in the United States Army Air Force. Following the war he trained at the Actors Studio in New York City. He made his debut on Broadway in Galileo in 1947. He would appear again on Broadway in Six O'Clock Theatre (1948), Sundown Beach (1948), The Smile of the World (1949), and Detective Story (1949).  He made his television debut in 1948 in episodes of Actor's Studio. In the late Forties he also appeared in the TV shows Robert Montgomery Presents and Starlight Theatre.

It was in 1951 that he made his movie debut in an uncredited part as a radio announcer in Follow the Sun. In the Fifties he appeared in such films as The Frogmen (1951), Deadline-USA (1952), The Barefoot Contessa (1954), The Man From Bitter Ridge (1955), Forbidden Planet (1956), Accused of Murder (1956), and Intent to Kill (1958). On television he was a regular on the series Tales of the 77th Lancers as Lt. William Storm. He appeared on such shows as The WebSuspense, The Philo-Goodyear Television Playhouse, Studio One, Inner Sanctum, The Millionaire, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Perry Mason, Have Gun--Will Travel, One Step Beyond, Men Into Space, and The Alaskans.

In the Sixties Mr. Stevens appeared in such shows as The Untouchables, The Twilight Zone, The Defenders, Wagon Train, Route 66, Gunsmoke, 77 Sunset Strip, Have Gun--Will Travel, The Outer Limits, The VirginianHoney West, Man From U.N.C.L.E., I SpyThe Big Valley, Combat, Daniel Boone, Star Trek, Bonanza, and The Outsider. He was a regular on The Richard Boone Show and Bracken's World (although, like Charlie on Charlie's Angels, only his voice was heard). He appeared in such films as 40 Pounds of Trouble (1962), Gunpoint (1966), An American Dream (1966), The Sweet Ride (1968),  and Madigan (1968).

From the Seventies to Naughts Warren Stevens appeared on such shows as Adam-12, Mission: Impossible, Ironside, Get Christie Love, Marcus Welby M.D., M*A*S*H, Police Woman, Wonder Woman, Quincy, Falcon Crest, the Eighties version of The Twilight Zone, and ER He appeared in such films as The Student Body (1976), Stroker Ace (1983), Samurai Cop (1989), The Solicitor (2007), and Carts (2007).

Warren Stevens was a versatile actor, which explains why he was a frequent guest star on TV shows.  He frequently played villains, from THRUSH operative Captain Denis Jenks in the Man From U.N.C.L.E. episode "The Children's Day Affair," to Rojan, an invader from the Kelvan Empire, on Star Trek. At the same time, however, he played many roles that were not at all villainous. In the Bonanza episode "The Ballerina" he played a master at ballet who becomes a mentor to a young woman wanting to be a ballerina. On an episode of Marcus Welby M.D. he played the Chief of Obstetrics. Of course, his most famous role was perhaps that of Dr. Ostrow, the kindly if unfortunately overly curious medical officer of United Planets Cruiser C57-D. Warren Stevens played these diverse roles well. He was an actor who could be convincing as the agent of a criminal organisation intent to taking over the world as he could a gentle doctor or an artist. It is little wonder he was in such demand as a guest star on TV shows for many years.

Thursday, 5 April 2012

Here Comes Peter Cottontail

Today my allergies have been particularly severe, so I do not feel like writing a full blog post. With Easter soon upon us, then, I will leave you with a fitting song: "Here Comes Peter Cottontail" by Gene Autry.

The name "Peter Cottontail" originated in the pages of Thorton Burgess' series of "Old Mother West Wind" books, of which the first book was published in 1910. The "Old Mother West Wind" books featured animals as characters, among them Peter Rabbit (not to be confused with Beatrix Potter's character of the same name). For whatever reason Peter Rabbit's name would later be changed to "Peter Cottontail." He would be the star of his own book, The Adventures of Peter Cottontail (published in 1921), in which he ultimately returns to his original name of "Peter Rabbit."

It was in 1950 that Steve Nelson and Jack Rollins composed the song "Here Comes Peter Cottontail." The two composers asked Gene Autry, fresh from his success with "Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer," to record the song. It would prove to be a hit, going to #3 on the Billboard Country chart and to #5 on the Billboard singles chart. Since then the song has become an Easter standard, to the point that "Peter Cottontail" is identified with the Easter Bunny. Here it must be pointed out that the Easter Hare/Easter Bunny traditionally had no other name than "Easter Hare" or "Easter Bunny," and that Thornton Burgess never identified Peter Rabbit/Peter Cottontail as the Easter Hare/Easter Bunny.

Tuesday, 3 April 2012

The Psychology of Betty Draper Francis

If there is one character on Mad Men that almost everyone loves to hate, it is Betty Draper Francis (January Jones), ex-wife of advertising account executive Don Draper and current wife of political advisor Henry Francis. She has been described as "self-absorbed," "emotionally immature," "petulant," "abusive," and even "psychotic," and that is just a short list of the more polite terms used of her. A Google search for "Betty Draper" or "Betty Francis" reveals that she could easily be the most disliked character on Mad Men (even more than Pete Campbell).

I must admit that there was a point where I outright hated Betty.  At times Betty seemed wholly indifferent or even hostile to her children. She was constantly telling them to, more often than not yelling at them to, "go watch TV," "go outside," and "go upstairs." Betty could also be verbally abusive to her children, a situation that increased as the seasons of Mad Men passed. She once famously told Bobby, "Go bang your head against the wall." While that comment Betty made to Bobby might seem shocking, most of her vitriol is reserved for her daughter Sally. Betty once told her friend Francine Hanson that Sally looked fat. One has to wonder that she hasn't said the exact same thing to her daughter. After Sally is caught touching herself while watching The Man From U.N.C.L.E. at a friend's slumber party, Betty threatens to cut Sally's fingers off.

Worse yet, by the fourth season of Mad Men it appears that Betty is even being physically abusive towards Sally. When Sally cuts her hair because she wants to look beautiful (something most parents would laugh about), Betty responds by slapping her daughter across the face. After Betty catches Sally smoking with neighbour boy Glen Bishop, she locks her daughter in a closet as punishment. When Betty and her new husband Henry Francis have Thanksgiving dinner at the in laws, Betty forces Sally to eat sweet potatoes, even though Sally dislikes sweet potatoes. Henry's mother, overbearing though she may be, makes an observation many probably have but never spoken allowed--Betty's children are terrified of her.  Even in the Sixties, when spanking was still widely accepted as a punishment for children, slapping a child across the face (especially for something so minor as cutting his or her hair) or locking them in a closet would have been considered abuse.

Not only does Betty treat her children poorly, but she is not much better to the adults around her. Oh, I think most people can forgive her for yelling at Don given his treatment of her, but it seems more often than not Betty's wrath is reserved for people who are good deal nicer to her. Betty's treatment of the Drapers' and later the Francises' housekeeper Carla is often unforgivable. Indeed, it goes much further than Betty ordering Carla around as if she were more a slave than the hired help. Betty berated Carla for not managing her father's dementia better and not keeping an eye on her father's second wife Gloria, even though I think most of us agree that is the job of a daughter, not a housekeeper. When Carla allowed Glen Bishop to say goodbye to Sally, Betty fired her, even though Carla had kept the Draper house for years and had more or less raised the Draper children. Worse yet, Betty does not even give Carla a written reference, something for which she must go to Henry (who is justifiably disgusted by his wife's behaviour). Of course, Henry is also the victim of Betty's vitriol more often than not. Despite the fact that he is much more emotionally accessible than Don ever was, despite the fact that he has never cheated on her as Don has, despite the fact that he is not verbally abusive as Don sometimes was, Betty treats Henry worse in many ways than she did Don. Sadly, while Henry does stand his ground with Betty many times, there are many other times that he simply stands there and takes it.

Given Betty's behaviour, particularly as the seasons of Mad Men passed, it should be no surprise why many have treated her as a bad mother, if not an outright monster. Now it is true that there are other characters on Mad Men who are equally despicable. Pete Campbell would seem to have little in the way of redeeming qualities and, in fact, I have always despised him more than I ever have Betty. Roger is openly racist and self centred to the point that only his charm and his concern for his friends makes him even a little likeable.  I suspect Betty has garnered so much more attention than either Pete or  Roger is because of her treatment of children and individuals who certainly do not deserve such mistreatment (Carla and Henry).  It is hard to imagine even Pete or Roger mistreating children (in fact, both seem to be fond of them). While Betty has often been treated as a monster or a younger version of the  characters from a psycho-biddy film, she is hardly either. It is not entirely Betty's fault that she is the way she is, as whatever personality disorders and psychoses she may have are largely the product of her life from the day she was born through her marriage to Don Draper.

First, we must consider Betty's upbringing. Betty was the victim of what even at the time would have been considered child abuse at the hands of her mother, the beautiful Mrs. Ruth Hofstadt. In the episode "The Arrangements," Betty's father Gene told Sally how her grandmother (Betty's mother) would take Betty shopping and then force her "fat" daughter walk all the way home to keep the weight off (here I must say that until recently I very seriously doubt Betty was ever fat...). In the episode "The Chrysanthemum and the Sword" Betty told Sally how whenever she was bad as a little girl, her mother would threaten to cut her hair off. While Betty is giving birth to youngest son Gene Draper, she has hallucinations (probably more due to her own psychosis than the twilight sleep she had been put under) that are quite revealing about her mother. While holding a bloody rag, Ruth Hofstadt told Betty, "You see what happens to people who speak up?" In the hallucinations she also told her daughter to shut her mouth or she would catch flies. It is in the first season that Betty stated, "My mother wanted me to be beautiful so I could find a man. There's nothing wrong with that. But then what? Just sit and smoke and let it go 'til you're in a box?"

Unfortunately, it would appear that Betty would take her mother's words to her and her treatment of her to heart. Quite obviously Ruth Hofstadt thought that it was important for a woman to marry and she must be beautiful to insure that she did. Betty's mother did not simply tell her daughter this, but she also reinforced it with actions. She made her walk home in order to keep any extra weight off and threatened to cut her hair if she was bad. At the same time that Ruth Hoftstadt was indoctrinating young Betty with the idea that physical appearance was everything, one must also suspect that she was teaching her that women are better seen and not heard. "You see what happens to people who speak up?" As sad as it might seem, I could rather see Ruth Hofstadt telling her daughter that a woman must know her place. It does not seem inconceivable that Ruth Hofstadt was responsible for her daughter's conflicting views on sex. From Betty's reaction to Sally's unfortunate behaviour at her friend's slumber party, it would seem Betty has definite ideas on what good girls do and do not do. Given everything else we know about Ruth Hofstadt, it would not be surprising if we found out that she is not where Betty got these attitudes from.

While Ruth Hofstadt was downright abusive towards her daughter, it seems likely that Eugene Hofstadt spoiled Betty.  In fact, Betty's brother William indicated that Betty was their father's favourite child. In "The Arrangements" Eugene Hofstadt tells Sally that he believed that he had shielded Betty from too many times. He expounds on this by explaining that he wanted Betty to be a princess, to be "Scarlett O'Hara."  In the same episode Betty responded adversely to her father Eugene explaining his final wishes to her with words to the effect of "I'm your little girl!"  Whether this was because Betty was their only daughter or because Eugene Hofstadt was trying to make up for his wife's abuse of her is hard to say, but it is clear that he may have spoiled Betty.

At the same time that Eugene may have spoiled Betty, he also appeared to be disappointed that she turned out simply be a housewife. Betty's father quite obviously had some very progressive views when it came to women. In "The Arrangements" he told Sally that her grandmother Ruth was a drafting engineer in the Twenties and went onto tell Sally, "You can really do something. Don't let your mother tell you otherwise." In the hallucinations Betty had during son Gene's birth, her father Eugene told Betty,"You're a housecat. Very important with not much to do." While Betty's mother Ruth appeared to have simply wanted her daughter to be beautiful and get married, her father Eugene appeared to want a life for her beyond being a housewife. Indeed, it is quite possible that Betty could have become something other than a housewife, difficult though it may have been at the time. She attended Bryn Mawr College and received a degree in anthropology. Betty has also been shown to be fluent in Italian. Betty may not be the sanest person in the world, but she is quite clearly very intelligent.

Given Betty's upbringing, it should be little wonder if she had a few mental problems. This would only be complicated by the fact that she married the wrong man, namely Don Draper. Don may be a great person with whom to work, but he is not exactly someone to whom a woman would want to be married. First one must consider the fact that Don has an entire hidden past about which he wants no one to know. Because of this Betty actually knows very little about her husband. Indeed, it was one of the reasons that Betty's father disliked Don. In the episode "The Inheritance," he complained to Betty that Don had "...no people. You can't trust a person like that." It should have been no surprise that Don's secret life should play a pivotal role in the break up of their marriage. Second, perhaps in a large part because of his secret life, Don is emotionally distant with Betty. It is a rare thing for Don to express his feelings to Betty and a rare thing for him to confide anything to her. Betty then does not receive much in the way of communication from the person who should be closet to her in her life. Third, Don was often verbally abusive towards Betty. It is not hard to find episodes in which Don does not yell at or at least talk condescendingly towards her. This obviously grew worse after their marriage fell apart. In The Chrysanthemum and the Sword" Don yelled at Betty and accused her of being a bad mother (well, it is true that she is a bad mother, but then he did not have to yell to get the point across). In "Tomorrowland" Don yelled at Betty for not being honest with him (the man with an entire secret life is actually angry at someone else for not being honest...).

Fourth and finally, Don had all the marital fidelity of a tomcat. During their marriage Don had at least five affairs that we know of, and one has to suspect that there weren't more. So much cheating on the part of a husband would seriously damage a marriage in which the woman was totally sane. In the case of Betty, one has to wonder if it was not one of the primary factors in pushing her over the edge. Consider that Betty was taught that she had to be beautiful in order to get a man. Once she does get a man, the handsome and charming Don Draper, he does not remain loyal to her. This would not only been a blow to her already fragile ego, but it would also have an outright insult to her. This particularly appears to have been the case with Don's inexplicable affair with Bobbie Barrett, as Betty rather undiplomatically says, "She's so old!"

Even though Don never, ever raised a hand to Betty, his relationship to her would almost have to be considered abusive. He never really communicated with Betty, whether it was confiding his own feelings or dealing with the problems in their marriage. He constantly berated her and spoke to her condescendingly. He cheated on her multiple times. When combined with her upbringing (the conflicting messages of "get a man" from her mother and "do something" from her father), it is actually surprising that Betty did not have a complete psychotic break. It also explains why Betty often treated Carla and Henry Francis so poorly. Angry at Don and unable to direct that anger towards Don (who would only yell back), she directs that anger at people who are unlikely to yell back or will at least still accept her if they do. If Betty abused Sally and Bobby because her mother abused her, she perhaps abused Carla and Henry because Don abused her.

Of course, here we must take into account that it probably was not only her upbringing and her marriage to Don that pushed Betty over the edge. It was probably also the times. While feminism had existed in some form since the late 19th Century and started to gain ground in the 1960's (Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique was published in 1963), it was still expected that women would marry and become housewives. Even as recently as the Sixties there were only a few occupations generally open to women, such as nursing, teaching, or office work. Even then it was often expected that if a woman got married, then she would give up her career. Even though Betty was a model when Don first met her, it should not be surprising that she gave up her career when they married. It should also not be surprising that Betty should go from her marriage to Don almost immediately to her marriage to Henry Francis. It was not simply that her mother had programmed her that a woman's primary purpose in life was as wife and mother, society also dictated that this was ideal for women at the time as well. While there can be little doubt that Betty would have had problems even if she had remained a model or became an anthropologist, I cannot suspect that they would have become quite so severe. First, she would not have been a disappointment to her father. She would not have been a "housecat" and would have had plenty to do. This would certainly eliminate one source of stress in her life. Second, she would have been able to put her considerable intelligence to use in something that she actually enjoyed. One has to suspect that many of Betty's problems stem from the simple fact that she has little to do that actually challenges her. Third, if she had pursued a career in anthropology or something else, she would have never married Don Draper. As pointed out above, Betty would have probably had problems without marrying Don, but in doing so it only exasperated what was already a bad situation.

While Betty would appear to be a monster, then, she is not one of her own creation. Any psychoses and personality disorders were the creation of multiple factors. Her upbringing, her marriage to Don, and even the milieu into which she was born all played a role in Betty's mental instability. While Betty is still not a very likeable character, then, I think she is still one who is worthy of some degree of sympathy. To a large degree Betty's behaviour is not something for which she was responsible. She is simply behaving in the way that her parents, Don, and society had taught her to.

It is difficult to say what the fifth season of Mad Men holds for Betty. The second episode of the season, "Tea Leaves," finds her calmer and to a small degree more at peace. She actually shows affection towards her children. And while she is still a bit cranky with Henry Francis, she is not the screaming harpy she once was. Unfortunately, she is also overweight and quite obviously depressed. It is difficult to say what happened to Betty. Perhaps therapy dissolved much of the anger in her life, but not the unhappiness. Regardless, it will be interesting to see what has brought Betty to this point in her life as the season unfolds.